Qatar is the richest nation on earth with a GDP of over $90,000 per capita. Despite this, there have been numerous news stories in Western media detailing extremely poor living and working conditions for non-Nationals. However, if you are a Western tourist visiting the country, you shouldn't have any problems. Just remember to respect the local culture and dress modestly.
I'll be honest here. We have visited Qatar just once, staying in the capital Doha. We haven't felt the urge to return. There was nothing wrong with the city or country, but we didn't feel that it had anything to offer the leisure traveller that the UAE doesn't have. There will be the FIFA World Cup in 2022 of course. If you are travelling for business, there is a wide choice of 5* inventory, including a Grand Hyatt, W, St Regis, Ritz Carlton and Four Seasons. The new Doha airport is now open, with numerous international routes to most parts of the world. Now a member of OneWorld, there are plenty of opportunities for reward flights with Qatar Airways.
The climate of Qatar is similar to that of the UAE. Summers can be unbearably hot (average high in August is 45 C) with very little rain. From March to August, a hot wind can blow up, often bringing a sand storm. In winter, temperatures drop to a more comfortable level (around 30 C) but rain can occur, usually in short, violent bursts or thunderstorms. However, the wettest month is February with just two rainy days on average - rain is unlikely to be a major problem. Humidity tends to be higher on the coast (including Doha).
Note that temperatures often drop by as much as 20 C at night, so you may need to take an extra layer with you. As with the UAE, air-conditioning is fierce (Qatar not only has the highest GDP per capita but also the highest carbon emissions) so you may feel chilly if indoors in summer clothing.